Chapter One: "New Frontiers"
Events of the 1960s as they affect/influence fandom



* Science fiction fandom
  > (short paragraph or two stating what fandom is, and how it came into
    being)


A) WORLD EVENTS

* JFK and RFK assassinations
  - (find mention of this in fanzines - people might talk about where they
    were, what they were doing when they heard Kennedy was shot)
  - (info from QUARK #7)
  - After the shooting of Robert Kennedy in 1968, L.A. fans Jane and Bill
    Ellern, who often hosted parties of The Blackguards fan group, found out
    that their quiet next-door neighbor had been Sirhan Sirhan

* Cuban Missile Crisis/Cold War
  - Shaws moved to California (need more on this, if that's why they did it)
  - during the 1960s, 1940s fan Willis Conover did two daily shows on Voice of
    America, featuring music and commentary
    > he received fan mail from all over the world, including from behind the
      Iron Curtain
    > because of this, Conover may well be the most famous person ever to
      emerge from science fiction fandom, even though he remained mostly
      unknown to everyone in North America

* Man in Space/Space Race/First Lunar Landing
  - At 1965 Worldcon, banquet toastmaster Tom Boardman began proceedings by
    announcing successful splashdown of Gemini 5, to great applause
  - Beryl Mercer's fanzine DEC. 27TH, 1968 about the Apollo 8 mission
  - Special Committee Award at the 1969 Worldcon, for "The Best Moon Landing
    Ever"
  - News coverage received Hugo Award in 1970
  - 1970 Eastercon programme book featured photos from Apollo 11, had
    dedication: "As Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon, he smelled a sweet
    pungent odour, and observed an elderly gentleman in doublet and hose. On
    Armstrong's expressing some surprise and enquiry, his welcomer said `I
    am the spectre of those who have said for so long that science fiction is
    not for real.' He then vanished, with a faint, musical twang. AND GOOD
    RIDDANCE!"

* Civil Rights
  - reportedly, Harlan Ellison was one of the participants in the civil rights
    march on Selma, Alabama (when?)
  - MLK speech in Washington prior to 1963 Worldcon
    > (find mention of this in fanzines)
  - a New York City fan, Eugenia Arnold, went to King's March on Washington
    > her description of events published by Tom Perry in his fanzine,
      LOGORRHEA
    > some subsequent letters of comment demanded to know what that sort of
      thing was doing in a science fiction fanzine
  - King's assassination in 1968 did have its effect on the sf world
    > the following year, John Brunner founded the Martin Luthor King Memorial
      Prize, which was an annual award of 100 pounds sterling for the literary
      work that best reflected the ideals of Dr. King (more details needed
      here)

* Politics and Fandom
  - Chan Davis, one of the members of The Stranger Club of 1940s Boston
    fandom, made news in 1960, when he was sentenced to serve a 6-month jail
    term for Contempt of Congress, after he refused to answer questions asked
    by the U.S. House of Representatives Un-American Activities Committee
    > he was an instructor at the University of Michigan at the time, and
      had sought protection under the First Amendment when he was asked about
      his political beliefs, and his association with a studen group at
      Harvard (where he had been a student after World War Two) that had
      published a pamphlet criticizing the Committee
    > Davis saw the main issue as an unwarranted invasion of his
      constitutional rights: "No one should be forced by any Congressional
      committee to disclose ideas or to testify his allegiance. My purpose in
      starting this case was to try to get free of that monstrosity, the
      committee."
    > the Un-American Affairs Committee was one of the last left-over vestiges
      of the McCarthy era, which had gotten a life of its own in the
      succeeding years; it was eventually abolished when it became outrageous
      enough that even its conservative supporters in Congress had to distance
      themselves from it.
  - members of Nottingham fan group, in England, participated in "Committee of
    100" which advocated Gandhi-style passive resistance (1960)
  - Michael Moorcock had a dog who he had trained to bark whenever he said 
    "conservative"
  - in October 1964, L. Sprague de Camp went door-to-door in his precinct,
    working for the Democratic Party.  His reason was that "somebody in sf
    ought to do something to offset Heinlein's activities"
  - Curtis Janke resigned from FAPA in late 1964, purportedly because Barry
    Goldwater had been defeated in the U.S. presidential election
  - more likely was fans becoming involved with liberal or left-wing causes
    > Mike McInerney, while at college in early 1960s, became involved with
      such perceived radical-left organizations as the Student Peace Union,
      Committee for Nonviolent Action, and the Student Nonviolent
      Coordinating Committee
      -- later, while living in New York City, he attempted to join as many
         organizations as possible on the Attorney General's list of
         subversive organizations, as a creative way of avoiding conscription
         into the military
    > in the mid 1960s, the Free Speech Movement, which seemed to be centered
      in the San Francisco area, counted among its advocates some of the fans
      in that area
      -- an album of protest songs titled BASTION OF TRUTH was released in
         1965, and included at least one song written by a fan (Kevin Langdon)
    > 1968 Democratic National Convention demonstrations against nomination of
      Hubert Humphrey
      -- Neil Rest was one of group that was tear-gassed while demonstrating
         in Grant Park near the convention
      -- Tom Perry also in demonstration, but escaped being gassed
         >> did not totally escape bad fortune, however; suffered injury when
            he was stabbed later that night in an unrelated incident elsewhere
            in Chicago

* Vietnam War
  - St. Louis fandom was a microcosm of the rest of the U.S.A., in terms of
    how the war affected people
    > many members of St. Louis fandom were strongly against the War
      -- Ray Fisher, co-chair of 1969 St. Louiscon, was strongly anti-war
         >> his fanzine ODD contained a lot of anti-war material, in form of 
            editorials and political cartoons
      -- Bob Schoenfeld was tagged as an insurgent by the U.S. Government for
         his anti-war activities, which included organizing the St. Louis
         contingent for the March On Washington
      -- Hank Luttrell and Leslie Couch Luttrell active in anti-war movements
         on University of Missouri campus in early 1970s
      -- Steve Shucart became active in the radical Weatherman organization
    > The home telephone of Norbert Couch was tapped
      -- Couch worked for U.S. Government, at a facility in St. Louis that
         made maps for the Army
      -- routine security check noted Couch's connection with fandom, and the
         discovery of the anti-war activities of St. Louis fandom
         >> Couch's supervisor, in a paranoid reaction, apparently engineered
            a tap on Couch's phone
         >> Couch was subsequently called into his supervisor's office and 
            questioned about some of his conversations with other fans
      -- this led to phone taps of other St. Louis fans, including Ray & Joyce
         Fisher
    > yet, St. Louis fandom had pro-war supporters, as well
      -- while participating in one peace march, members of St. Louis fandom
         were surprised to find that one of a group of hecklers was fellow
         club member Steve Gerber
  - anti-war riots
    > 1968 Worldcon affected, was taking place at about same time as Chicago
      demonstrations
  - GALAXY (June 1968) had paid advertisements from 72 authors who supported
    the war, and 82 authors who opposed it
    > as a result, authors listed in the "support the war" ad were banned from
      publication in the Soviet Union, which had sided with and supported
      North Vietnam
  - other fan protests against the war
    > in 1972, John Foyster resigned as chair of Australia's worldcon bidding
      committee as part of a general reduction in contacts with U.S.A after
      then-President Nixon orders mining of Haiphong harbor in North Vietnam
  - fans who served in Vietnam in the 1960s
    > Rich Wannen
      -- one of founders of St. Louis's Ozark SF Association
      -- was Treasurer of the 1969 St. Louiscon
      -- had gotten draft notice after graduation from college in 1968
         >> did series of appeals, all were denied
         >> appeals delayed his induction in army long enough so that he was
            able to complete his duties as Worldcon Treasurer in 1969
      -- Wannen avoided Vietnam by actually enlisting in the Army in 1970,
         before he was drafted, and spent his military tour of duty in Europe
    > Joe Haldeman
      -- (mini bio here)
      -- his column "Letters from Vietnam" published in Ray Fisher's ODD
      -- was wounded in September 1968 when a booby-trapped rocket exploded
         >> had a series of operations, and suffered no lasting physical
            disability
      -- went on to win Hugo Awards in 1970s and later decades
    > Colin Cameron
      -- fan artist who often worked in ditto medium
      -- was machine gunner on helicopter at times during the war
         >> mostly, he was a company clerk there
      -- had career as a professional musician after he returned
         >> played lead guitar for country music singer John Herald
    > Richard Tatge
      -- Minneapolis fan
      -- was a Consciencious Objector; served in Vietnam as an unarmed medic
      -- did not prevent him from being shot at
    > Hank Davis
      -- contacted fan groups in Australia while on R&R there
    > Mike Horvat
      -- contacted fan groups in Australia while on R&R there
    > Don D'Ammassa
      -- wrote of his experiences in apazines
    > David Thayer
      -- served in Vietnam from July 1970 to August 1971
         >> became a fan in the mid 1970s
         >> wrote series of articles about his war experiences for fanzines in
            the 1980s and 1990s
      -- became better known as his fan artist pseudonym, Teddy Harvia
         >> won fan artist Hugo Award in 1991
    > Roy Lavender, Jr.
      -- son of Roy & Deedee Lavender
      -- served in Vietnam in 1966
      -- was marginally active in Los Angeles area fandom
    > Dick Eney
      -- had come into fandom in 1950s, his most celebrated activity in that
         decade being the editing and publication of the second Fancyclopedia
         >> this led to a fannish catch-phrase: "It's Eney's fault!", in spite
            of the fact that the edition was so excellent in quality and
            difficult to put together, there never was a third version
      -- was employed by U.S. Agency for International Development, a branch
         of the State Department
         >> many fans had come to mistaken conclusion that Eney was involved
            in covert activities while in Vietnam
         >> stationed in Saigon, in Kien Phong province, and in Can Tho (in
            the Mekong River delta)
      -- was in Vietnam from 1966 until early 1970s
         >> in mid 1966, was nearly hit by machine gun fire when South Vietnam
            sentries were shooting wildly at a suspected Viet Cong terrorist
            --- "I haven't ducked for cover so fast in years!"
      -- continued to be an active fan publisher while stationed overseas
         >> while in Vietnam, published a fanzine CURSE YOU, RED BARON!
         >> published f/rs for The Cult from Vietnam
         >> while in southeast Asia in the 1960s, published the first ever
            fanzines mailed from Hong Kong, Macau, and Bangkok
         >> in the 1980s, on other assignments for AID, went on to publish the
            first fanzines from Tanzania, Kenya, Djibouti, and Addis Ababa
    > Elizabeth Swanson (known in later years as Lee Uba)
      -- granddaughter of SF author Fredric Brown
      -- was in Air Force in early 1970s
      -- since Air Force's covert operation known as "Air America" did *not*
         officially exist
         >> therefore, she was *not* involved in any U.S. military activities
         >> she was *not* a radar operator
         >> she was *not* stationed in Cambodia
  - fans who left U.S. to avoid the draft or because of U.S. involvement in
    the war
    > Bill Gibson
      -- was originally from southern U.S., was an early member of SFPA
      -- moved to Canada in 1968
         >> was rejected by draft board (?)
      -- went on to become renowned SF author
    > Floyd Henderson
    > John Clute
      -- a Canadian who was living in U.S. in non-resident alien status
      -- left U.S. in 1963, not specifically to avoid Vietnam
         >> eventually moved to the U.K. in 1969
    > Dan Curran arrested for draft evasion in late 1963, unrelated to war
    > Andy Main
      -- tried to register as Conscientious Objector, but was turned down
      -- moved to Canada in 1967 after being classified as 1-A
      -- had been classified as 4-F previously
    > Rich Brown, who was already in the U.S. Air Force in the late 1960s,
      informed his commanding officers that he would refuse to go to Vietnam
      to participate in what he considered an illegal war
      -- he invited them to institute dishonorable discharge proceedings, but
         they never took him up on it

* Counterculture and Fandom
  - the so-called `Free Love Era'
    > as the 1960s progressed, the conservatism of the 1950s faded away; by
      the late 1960s, a sense of liberation had gripped much of the younger
      people in the U.S.; some of the visible manifestations of this included
      `flower children', referral to that time as the Age of Aquarius, and the
      ubiquitous anti-war slogan, "Make Love, Not War"
      -- fandom was not excluded from this influence, especially the latter,
         and sexual liaisons between fans became an open secret, or not even a
         secret at all
    > by the mid 1960s, a west coast fan named Kevin Langdon decided to map
      some of the liaisons he knew about between fans in the San Francisco Bay
      area
      -- Langdon was characterized by Don Fitch as "a very young, *very*
         brilliant, generally-pleasant but somewhat more socially inept than
         most Bay Area fan"
         >> heretofore, his main fannish accomplishment had been a fanzine,
            QUANTIFIER, that he had published a few years earlier but which
            had not brought him any degree of renown
      -- however his `Langdon Chart' soon caught the attention of fans in the
         area: it was a graphical and somewhat convoluted depiction of which
         Bay Area fans (and some non-local fans as well) had had sex with
         which other fans
         >> nobody seemed upset by the Chart; in fact, it became the source of
            entertainment, as some fans maintained they had been short-changed
            in their number of Chart connections
    > the idea caught on in fandom, and soon other areas had their own charts
      -- Bruce Pelz created one for Los Angeles fandom, but mapped only the
         interactions that had been mentioned in public by both participants
      -- somewhat later, there was a perhaps apocryphal rumor of such a chart
         that had been planned for Minneapolis fandom, but the idea had to be
         abandoned because it proved impossible to find sheets of paper larger
         than 6 feet by 6 feet so that names of all the people involved could
         be printed large enough to be legible
      -- looking back at those days, Catherine Yronwode remembered the idea
         for a proposed party involving Berkeley fandom that would have been
         built around a sexual connection theme: "The idea was to start with
         one person, who would then send out party invitations to each person
         with whom he or she had had sex, asking them to invite all their
         liaison-partners and to pass the invitation along so that *they*
         would invite all of *their* liaison-partners, and so forth.  In the
         end, we wanted to see if there would be enough people to fill the
         Greek Theater at U.C. Berkeley, the largest outdoor venue in the East
         Bay at the time.  When someone got a new boyfriend or girlfriend, a
         typical joke would be to say, `There's another seat in the Greek
         Theater!'"
  - besides sexual liberation, fans also became involved with other forms of
    perceived counter-culture such as Mysticism
    > the most prominent example of this was Andy Main, who was one of the
      founders of the Zen Center in the San Francisco Bay area
  - the 1960s was also the era when drug use became much more prevalent in
    fandom
    > (any usable quotes from 1960s fanzines?)
    > many fans became involved with experimenting with various drugs
      -- once, a few members of the New York City fan clubs FISTFA and the
         Fanoclasts attempted to get high by smoking catnip, with negative
         results
      -- after smoking marijuana for the first time, Rich Brown recalled that
         after walking into the New York subway, "I could have sworn that I
         heard the creaking waterpipes and machinery playing Bach."
    > out on the west coast, Ray Nelson made taped archives that documented
      drug use among fans in the San Francisco bay area during the 1960s, but
      the tapes were never transcribed
    > then, there was the unhappy episode involving Wayne Finch
      -- he was a member of St. Louis's Ozark SF Association in the late 1960s
      -- was a solid, respectable family man but in 1970s, started taking LSD
         >> went through personality changes and mental deterioration
         >> eventually committed suicide with a shotgun

* Fans Involved in other `Grey Areas' of the Law
  - On October 14, 1964, North Hollywood police raided the offices of London
    Press, which made its money by publishing "girlie" magazines
    > among those indicted in the aftermath were Sam Merwin, who edited
      STARTLING in the 1940s, and once-and-future fan Richard E. Geis

* Pop Music Revolution and Fandom
  - The Beatles
    > Liverpool fan Bill Harry meets John Lennon in 1958
      -- published music fanzine MERSEY BEAT in 1961
         >> Brian Epstein was an advertiser and record reviewer, connected up
            with The Beatles and eventually became their manager
         >> both John Lennon and Paul McCartney wrote for MERSEY BEAT
         >> in 1961, Beatles would sometimes show up to help Bill Harry with
            office work
    > Chris Priest had encounter with Beatles in 1962
      -- happened while cruising streets of Liverpool with girl friend
      -- had gone to Liverpool to hear them play at a local night spot
      -- happened across the band while driving through town
      -- George Harrison kissed his girlfriend, shook his hand, and mocked
         the suit he was wearing
    > novelization to Beatles first film, A HARD DAY'S NIGHT, was written by
      pre-WWII fan John F. Burke
  - Woodstock concert in August 1969 at Bethel, New York -- some fans were
    among the 300,000 attendees
    > Elizabeth Swanson (later known as Lee Uba) attended
    > Tom Perry also attended, though only for the first day
      -- had to walk out and hitchhike home, after becoming separated from the
         people he had came to the concert with
    > Dick and Pat Lupoff, who lived not far from concert site, did not
      attend, instead spending the weekend on fan-related activities
      -- after seeing reports from concert on all the mud and rain, they were
         happy with their decision
  - Greg Shaw
    > fanzine METANOIA
    > magazine: WHO PUT THE BOMP?
    > Bomp Records  (?)
  - CRAWDADDY rock music magazine
    > started by U.S. fan Paul Williams
    > early issues run off by Ted White in his basement office in Greenwich
      Village
      -- Ted White also became a staff reviewer for JAZZ magazine in 1963
      -- Ted White's office became tourist attraction
         >> was known in fandom as `Towner Hall', named after Francis Towner
            Laney, a famous and controversial fan from the 1940s & 50s
            --- Mike McInerney remembered the place as "very cluttered with
                stencils, cans of mimeo ink, and twiltone paper everywhere. 
                There were also several typewriters.  The first time I
                visited, Ted was busy running off a play for some Broadway
                show to pay the rent, but he found time to give me a warm
                welcome and show me how to cut a good stencil."
         >> It became for a while, if not the center of the entire fannish
            universe, at least the center of fandom in New York.
            --- According to Peter Graham: "Ted's basement office was in, if
                not the heart, then the liver of the Village.  I remember that
                Terry Carr and I attracted a family group of tourists into the
                office and showed them around, and then guided them through
                the Village a bit.  It was oh, so adventurous, but all very
                innocent, before the real '60s."

* other events in the 1960s that affected fandom
  - U.S. Post Office Department adopts zip codes in 1963
    > led Ron Ellik to comment: "Zip code is here--the latest farce in postal
      operations.  Mr. Day's men in blue want you to send me your five-digit
      zip code so your copies of STARSPINKLE can be lost more efficiently."
    > the Post Office activity that perhaps most affected fandom during the
      1960s, however, was the raise in postal rates
      -- was (how much?) at start of decade; was (how much) at end of decade
      -- this upward trend was to continue into the 1970s and beyond
         >> this caused fanzine publishing to start to become expensive, 
         perhaps a contributing factor for why fandom started its slow drift
         away from fanzine publishing as an activity most fans in the U.S.
         were involved with


B) CHANGES IN FANDOM ITSELF
* Fandom continues to evolve
  - exponential growth of fandom
    > fans in the 1930s, 1940s, and for much of the 1950s, for the most part,
      knew of almost everyone else who claimed to be a fan; this was no longer
      the case in the 1960s and later, caused by the ever increasing number
      of people who came into fandom
    > number of fan organizations and conventions also increase
    > Worldcon bidding wars escalate and become expensive
  - different fandoms form, split off
  - relatively fewer fanzines, fanzine fandom no longer dominant
  - fan/sercon feuds
    > British fandom of mid 60s ("new wave")
  - fandom on the move
    > fans moving to California
      -- Jerry and Miriam Knight moved from Poughkeepsie, NY to Berkeley, CA
         in April, 1963
    > car caravans to worldcons
      -- Los Angeles to Washington in 1963 for Discon, via Chicago
         >> included Ron Ellik and Calvin Demmon
    > Great Fanoclast Treks from NYC to Midwestcon & Westercon, 1965 and 1966

* Greater interaction between fans and pros
  - fans who appeared in prozine letter columns
    > (need info on this)
  - pros who were formerly fans
    > Michael Moorcock
      -- (mini bio here)
      -- published and wrote for fanzines in early 1960s
         >> early sword and sorcery tales appeared in his own BURROUGHSANIA
         >> last fanzine, in 1962, was ERGO EGO, a collection of stories and
            poems rejected by various publishers
      -- became editor of NEW WORLDS magazine in 1964 when it changed
         publishers
         >> magazine became associated with "New Wave" movement in SF of
            the 1960s
    > Charles Platt
      -- last fanzine was in 1965
         >> said he wanted to direct his future efforts into breaking into
            the professional market
    > Ted White
      -- an influential fan in the 1950s, in the New York City and Washington,
         D.C. fan communities
         >> one of things he can be credited for is his examples in fanzine
            production that raised it to almost an art form, in terms of
            effective use of illustrations, color mimeography, and ornate
            formatting usually found in slick newsstand magazines
      -- collaborated with Terry Carr (under "Norman Edwards" byline) in 1965
         on a novel titled INVASION FROM 2025
      -- sold novel to Lancer Books in 1965 (was this the same book??)
      -- sold a novel SIDESLIP (written in collaboration with Dave Van Arnam)
         to Pyramid in 1965
      -- was an assistant editor for F&SF in mid 1960s
      -- became Managing Editor of AMAZING and FANTASTIC in the 1968
         >> he immediately re-introduced a letters column and began running
            some fan features such as fanzine reviews
      -- all the while remained an active fan
         >> published fanzines (titles?)
         >> co-chaired a Worldcon in 1967
    > Lee Hoffman
      -- was one of the best and most important fanzine editors of the early
         1950s, while living in Savannah, Georgia
         >> her fanzine QUANDRY was a study of good writing, fannish behavior,
            and low-key humor
            --- featured column by Walt Willis
      -- since her initial fanac was exclusively by mail, few fans at first
         were aware she was actually a girl
         >> when Walt Willis found out, his first actions were to grab the
            telephone and call Bob Shaw: "Lee Hoffman is a *girl*!"
         >> Bob Tucker's reaction, when he met her at the 1951 NOLAcon was
            more understated, but still amazement: "I'll be *damned*!"
      -- after periods of inactivity, still active in fandom in early 1960s
         >> was an early winner of TAFF, in mid 1950s, but elected, for
            personal reasons, not to take a TAFF-funded trip
         >> attended conventions, including 1962 Chicon
         >> as 1960s wore on, she gradually drifted out of fandom, in favor of
            a career as a professional writer
      -- wrote some science fiction and fantasy
         >> THE CAVES OF KARST published by Ballantine in 1969
         >> TELEPOWER published as part of a Belmont double in 1967 (other
            half was Harlan Ellison's DOOMSMAN)
      -- became better known as author of Western novels
         >> THE VALDEZ HORSES (published in 1967 by Doubleday) won the Spur
            Award for Best Western Novel for that year from Western Writers of
            America
    > Bob Tucker
      -- fan activity dated back to the 1930s
         >> most famous fanzine from the 1930s-1940s was LE ZOMBIE
      -- in 1940s and 1950s, fan activities made him legendary
         >> was a member of the 1940 Chicon committee
         >> (other stuff)
      -- by 1960s (characterize Tucker's fanac)
         >> (fan activities in 1960s here)
         >> most notable fan activity of the decade was publication of the
            30th anniversary issue of LE ZOMBIE in 1969, its first appearance
            in a decade
      -- became a professional writer (when?) with (what title?)
         >> by the early 1960s, had 15 published novels to his credit
         >> during the 1960s, continued his writing career as well
            --- LAST STOP, a mystery, was published by Doubleday
            --- PROCESSION OF THE DAMNED, title taken from Charles Fort, also
                published by Doubleday
    > Joe Staton
      -- fan artist
         >> cartoons appeared in several fanzines during the 1960s
         >> was also a member of SFPA
      -- started working for Charlton Comics in mid-1960s
      -- also did cover for FANTASTIC magazine, illustrating a story by
         another fledgling fan-turned-pro, Rich Brown
      -- went on to a successful career as a comicbook artist
  - Clarion conference
    > begun in 1968, it was the first of the science fiction writers
      conferences aimed at writers-to-be
    > founded by Robin Scott Wilson
      -- got the idea for it after attending the Milford writers conference,
         which was a workshop for writers who were already selling
         professionally
         >> to attend Milford, you had to be a published author, while Clarion
            was meant for people who *wanted* to be writers
      -- first few Clarions were held in Clarion, Pennsylvania, where Wilson
         taught at the local college
         >> after that, the converence migrated to Michigan State University
      -- other writers conferences later sprung up
         >> the Clarion West conference, was started (when?) by Vonda McIntyre
            after she had attended the eastern Clarion
         >> in 1969, Minneapolis-area fan Frank Stodolka organized a series of
            local writers workshops that brought out Cliff Simak and Gordy
            Dickson as mentors to the aspiring writers who attended
    > Clarion was set up to be an intensive six-week program
      -- during the course of the conference, attendees would compose stories
         which would be critiqued by other attendees and the writers-in-
         residence
      -- each week, there was a different writer-in-residence
      -- the concept was a phenominal success: attendees had a subsequent high
         success rate for selling stories
    > Damon Knight and Kate Wilhelm instructed at every Clarion conference
      until the 1990s
      -- sometimes referred to as the "Godparents" of Clarion
      -- Damon also founder of Science Fiction Writers of America in 1965
         >> history of SFWA outside the scope of this book, but Damon later
            was quoted as saying that he was responsible for founding two
            organizations, the NFFF and SFWA, and that both were mistakes

On to Chapter Two