Chapter Three: "Fractured Fandoms"
The proliferation of U.S. fan organizations

* San Francisco/Oakland
  - Elves', Gnomes' and Little Mens' Science Fiction Chowder and Marching
    > members included Al Halevy, Alva Rogers, ...
  - Golden Gate Futurian Society
    > formed as far back as 1941
      -- for a short time in the late 1950s, it was known as the Golden Gate
         Leprechauns, derivative of the Bay Area's other sf club
         >> for an even shorter time, was known as Golden Gate Trolls
      -- name reverted back to it's original version at a club meeting in late
         February 1960
    > members included Alva Rogers, Ed & Jessie Clinton...
    > in early 1960s, was still an active club
      -- bid for the 1961 Westercon
    > by the time of the mid 1960s, was meeting only sporadically
  - PenSFA
    > name of club an abbreviation for "Peninsula SF Association"
      -- was in theory an sf organization of fans in the peninsula part of
         northern California between San Jose and San Francisco
      -- in actuality, an alternate to the Little Mens club
    > formed (when?) (by whom?)
    > (anything interesting to report on club activities?)
    > Mike Ward moved from Boston area to Palo Alto, California in 1968, and
      was voted Commander of Pennsfa that year
    > clubzine was titled WINNIE THE P.O.O., the `P.O.O.' standing for `PenSFA
      Official Organ'
  - The Fanatics
    > a sercon club based in Oakland, which formed in 1968
      -- they became visible to fandom-at-large at the 1968 Worldcon, when
         some of the group drove shuttle buses that ran between hotels
    > meetings were centered around discussions of science fiction books
    > club lasted until (when?)
    > most prominent member was Quinn Yarbro, who went on to a successful
      writing career in science fiction and fantasy

* New York City area
  - unlike Los Angeles and other cities that featured a single dominant fan
    organization, the New York fan scene included numerous fan groups
    > as far back as New York fan groups existed, there was feuding, which
      sometimes became vicious; this evolved into a historical tendency for
      New York fans to form into a myriad of fan organizations, rather than
      a single monolithic one
    > at any rate, it was not unusual for New York fans to belong to several
      fan organizations, which made for busy months of fan activity
      -- (need quote to that effect from some 1960s fanzine)
    > at the beginning of the 1960s, there were four major fan organizations
      in the New York City area, all dating back to the early 1950s or even
      earlier: the Lunarians, The Hydra Club, the Eastern Science Fiction
      Association, and The Futurians
  - Lunarians
    > organized back in 1956, with the intent providing "a social organization
      for mature fans who are sincerely interested in science fiction as well
      as fandom"
    > during the early 1960s, was based in the Bronx, at the home of Frank and
      Belle Dietz
      -- at that time, it was mostly a social club
         >> Belle Dietz would usually make cookies or muffins for the meeting,
            and the main order of business was mostly just a gabfest
      -- meeting attendance typically about 20 people
      -- members included fanzine fans and collectors
         >> other prominent members included John Boardman, Charlie Brown, Ed
            Meskys, and Julius Postal
         >> three prominent out-of-town members were Jack Chalker, Ted Pauls,
            and Mark Owings from Baltimore, who for years would drive to New
            York once a month to take in a meeting/party
            --- (any influences on Baltimore fandom from this?)
      -- highlight of each meeting was a Hearts game
      -- this era of the club ended when the neighborhood the Deitzes lived in
         began to deteriorate, and they moved to New Jersey
         >> at that point, many of the older members of the club dropped out,
            and new members joined as the meetings moved to other places
    > later in the 1960s, the club seemed to have become much more structured
      -- meetings started being run in accordance with ROBERTS' RULES OF
         >> much time spent debating the Lunarians constitution and bylaws,
            though this was done mostly for entertainment value
      -- by then, the meetings had moved to the home of John & Perdita
      -- (other details of later meetings?)
  - The Hydra Club
    > has been characterized as an organization of science fiction
    > (details)
  - Eastern Science Fiction Association (ESFA)
    > a science fiction club that was more akin to professional society in
      some ways
      -- very sercon in nature, much more so than almost any other sf club
    > was founded back 1946 as the `Null-A Men', making it also one of oldest
      sf organizations in the 1960s
    > club was actually dominated by Sam Moskowitz
      -- Mike McInerney, a frequent ESFA attendee, remembered: "Sam was the
         main force and authority in the club.  His large stature and booming
         voice commanded attention."
      -- (bio of Moskowitz goes here)
    > club met first Sunday of each month, in New Jersey
      -- often had New York area authors, editors, and artists as speakers and
         >> March 1964 Annual Open Meeting, for example, had Virgil Finlay as
            a guest
            --- at that meeting, Sam Moskowitz presented a slide show
                detailing the careers of Finlay and Frank R. Paul, and a
                testamonial plaque to the Paul (who had died not quite a year
                earlier) was presented to his daughter
      -- after the meeting, there was almost always a meeting-after-the-
         meeting at a local cafeteria
    > Annual Open Meetings were in March, and usually were at the Newark, NJ
      -- March 1961 Open Meeting featured an impressive list of fan and pro
         attendees: Hugo Gernsback, Frank R. Paul, Forry Ackerman, Otto
         Binder, Hans Santessen, Ted White, Dick Lupoff, and Lester del Rey
         >> about 100 people were in attendance, in all
         >> meeting featured a slide show by Sam Moskowitz of AMAZING cover
            artwork, from it's beginnings
         >> meeting celebrated the 35th anniversary of AMAZING STORIES
      -- March 1963 Open Meeting had John Campbell as Guest of Honor
         >> celebrated Campbell's 25th year as editor of ASTOUNDING/ANALOG
         >> other speakers included Willy Ley, Isaac Asimov and Lester del Rey
            --- Asimov credited Campbell for formulating the Three Laws of
                Robotics, and for suggesting "Nightfall" and the Foundation
                >>> Campbell, in response, said he got the idea for
                    "Nightfall" from Ralph Waldo Emerson
      -- March 1965 Open Meeting featured a "Salute to GALAXY", with Fred
         Pohl, Willy Ley, H.L. Gold, Groff Conklin, Alfred Bester, and Harry
         Harrison taking part in the proceedings
      -- March 1966 Open Meeting featured Willy Ley
         >> 150 in attendance
  - Futurians
    > original Futurians club was formed in the 1930s by (who?)
      -- members in the 1930s included Fred Pohl, Don Wollheim, Kornbluth,
         John Michel, Dave Kyle, (others)
      -- club had strong rivalry with and strong dislike by Sam Moskowitz,
         which resulted in the exclusion of six of their members from the
         first Worldcon, in 1939, when Moskowitz feared they would cause
         trouble if they were admitted
    > in 1940s and 1950s, (how can club be characterized?)
    > be early 1960s, much had changed since its beginnings
      -- gone were many of the original members, to relocation or diminished
         interest in the club
      -- in their place were a newer generation of fans, including Dick
         Lupoff, Larry & Noreen Shaw, Lin Carter, Ted & Sylvia White, ...
      -- there was also a so-called `B' membership in the organization, the
         `B' standing for, according to Dick Lupoff, "Bohemians, beatniks, or
         just plain bums.  They weren't fans.  For the most part they weren't
         even sf readers.  They knew little and cared less about science
         fiction, fandom, fanzines, conventions, or anything else which makes
         the foundation of fannish comradeship."
         >> the `B' membership burgeoned in the club, which resulted in
            Futurians club becoming, in effect, two different organizations:
            those interested in science fiction and fandom, and those
            interested in a free party twice a month
         >> the breaking point came at a late October Sunday afternoon
            meeting in 1960 at the Lupoff's apartment in Manhattan. The dozen
            science fiction fans present retreated into a bedroom, while, as
            Lupoff remembered, "the `B' membership had the living room to
            themselves, filthying the rug, doing their best to ruin the
            furniture, and mistreating our collection of books, magazines, and
            rare and valuable comic books"
         >> it was the last straw; the Lupoffs, the Whites, and the Shaws
            decided to break away into a new, more exclusive organization that
            Ted White had conceived
    > remnants of Futurians did not survive much longer
      -- the last documented meeting, later that year, had only one science
         fiction fan present, Sylvia White
      -- if there were any further meetings, they did not involve any fans
  - Fanoclasts
    > founded in 1960, in the aftermath of the N.Y. Futurians
      -- the way Dick Lupoff explained it, "The Fanoclasts came into existence
         in late 1960, in a manner well supported by New York fan traditions:
         we schismed from another club."
         >> name was actually a contraction of `Fannish Iconoclasts'
      -- name was proposed by Bill Myers, to which Algis Budrys commented,
         "Fan smashers?  Okay, I guess, if that's what everybody wants."
    > It was.  The Fanoclasts were not exactly fan smashers, but they were a
      closed group; you had to be invited to become a member
      -- you had to be proposed for membership by another member, after which
         any other member could cast a veto
      -- however, the original concept of a small intimate group didn't last
         too long, and within a year the meetings were averaging upwards of 20
      -- besides the six charter members, Myers and Budrys, other members
         within the club's first year of existence included Steve Stiles, Jim
         Warren, Peter Graham, Terry Carr, Bhob Stewart, Larry Ivie, Walter
         Breen, plus the Philadelphia fans Hal Lynch and Will Jenkins
    > met every other Friday night, in Brooklyn
      -- meetings sometimes held at Ted White's residence
      -- (other places?)
    > meetings were informal, usually featuring fanzine production in some
      form or another, especially for the Fanoclasts' apa, APA-F
    > the club lasted for decades as one of the stronger New York fan
  - Faanish Insurgent Scientifictional Association (FISTFA or later, FIStFA)
    > founded by Mike McInerney (when?)
      -- 20-year-old McInerney had recently moved from Connecticut to New York
         City, and had joined ESFA, the Lunarians, and the Fanoclasts.
         However, he felt his fanac was still unsated: "There were many weeks
         when there were no meetings, and I wanted to fan full time, all the
         time.  I decided to fill in the gap by having a party every other
         Friday night, alternating with the Fanoclasts."
    > McInerney chose the name of the organization, but did not intend it to
      be an exclusive or invitational organization like the Fanoclasts were:
      "The name FISTFA was meant both as a joke and a hint that all fans were
      welcome.  I still don't know what we were insurging against, but I did
      like the action feeling of that word."
    > there were very few rules
      -- there were no minutes of meetings, no membership requirements at all,
         and no blackballs
      -- about the only firm rule was that someone could be banned for
         physical violence against other fans (did this ever happen?)
    > meetings were held at the apartment on the Lower East Side of Manhattan,
      that McInerney shared with another fan, Earl Evers
      -- after Evers was drafted into the Army, Rich Brown moved in and became
         co-host of FISTFA meetings
      -- McInerney started each meeting by playing the FISTFA anthem, "Mr.
         Spaceman" by the Holy Modal Rounders
    > happenings
      -- in 1966, group of 25 FISTFAns trooped off to see the off-Broadway
         premiere of three short plays based on Ray Bradbury stories,
         including "The Veldt"
         >> Bradbury had been expected to attend, taking the train to New York
            from Los Angeles, and the fans were disappointed when he didn't
            show up
      -- earlier in 1966, the club brought in the new year with a memorable
         new year's eve party in a storefront on Times Square where McInerney
         worked as night manager
         >> there was wine, beer, and filksinging inches from a frenzied horde
            of people on the other side of a large glass window
    > McInerney moved from New York to the San Francisco area in 1969, and the
      club started a gradual decline
      -- other contributing factors were the aftereffects and burnout from the
         1967 Worldcon (which McInerney and other FISTFA members were involved
         with), and other fan departures from the New York area in the early
         >> Ted White moved to the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C.
         >> Rich Brown and Steve Stiles moved to Maryland
         >> Len Bailes, Ken Beale, Earl Evers, and Dan Goodman moved to San
         >> Lee Hoffman moved to Florida
      -- the club died in the early 1970s, after which it was briefly revived
         by Ross Chamberlain
  - Brooklyn Insurgents
    > formed in 1969, as result of an internal split among the Fanoclasts
      -- founders were Rich & Colleen Brown, and Arnie Katz
    > was largely indistinguishable from Fanoclasts in form and purpose
      -- exception was that meetings were open rather than invitation-only
      -- the open meetings also led to a wider variety of fan interests being
         represented, as opposed to the Fanoclasts whose central interest was
    > met on alternate Fridays of the month than the Fanoclasts (need
      confirmation on this; have conflicting information here)
    > peak years of the club were early 1970s
      -- meetings in 1970s would attract as many as 20 people
    > lasted until the 1980s, when the club underwent a schism and neither
      fragment had sufficient staying power to survive
  - Columbia University Science Fantasy Society (CUSFS)
    > officially chartered on April 15, 1966
    > Fred Lerner (the founder) was Grand Marshall
    > other officers were Petit Marshall and Seneschal (which combined the
      duties of Secretary and Treasurer)
    > two past graduates of Columbia, Asimov and Silverberg, given title of
      Honorary Director
    > was one of few examples in history of fandom where SF club was parent
      organization of a mundane organization
      -- Outing Club Committee of CUSFS established to use CUSFS's official
         status with Columbia Univ. to allow an independent outdoors-oriented
         Outing Club to form
         >> this approach taken to circumvent complex university recognition
            procedures for new organizations
            --- CUSFS status used to obtain meeting space for Outing Club to
                adopt a constitution and elect officers
         >> once Outing Club gained university recognition as an independent
            organization, the CUSFS Outing Club Committee disbanded
    > club did not last very long
      -- Lerner graduated in June 1966, and was inducted into the U.S. Army
    > it was later revived in the 1980s
  - Fantasy and Science Fiction Society of Columbia University (FSFSCU)
    > pronounced as `fiss-fiss-cue', it was the successor to CUSFS
    > founded in the summer of 1968 by Fred Lerner (who had returned to
      Columbia for post graduate studies after getting out of the Army), Eli
      Cohen, and Janet Kagan
    > published three issues of a fanzine, AKOS, with Kagen as editor
    > club survived into the early 1970s
  - City College of New York had two sf clubs in 1964
    > SFSESCCNY, the Evening Session Science Fiction Society of the City
      College of New York, was holding Friday night meetings on-campus in
      Findlay Hall, which used to be a convent
      -- president of the night school club was Jake Waldman
    > not to be outdone, the day school students formed their own stf society,
      which met Thursday afternoons
      -- founders of the day school club were Joan Neufeld and Vivian Cohen
    > not known if the two clubs overlapped in any way, or if they eventually
  - Greater New York Clearing House (GNYCH)
    > existed very briefly, in 1965
    > founded by John Boardman, to serve as a central unifying agent for all
      of the various New York area fan clubs
    > planned a monthly newsletter, GNYCH GNOTES, that would have kept the
      clubs aware of what each other was doing
    > idea was met with strong opposition from Lunarians on the grounds that
      it threatened the privacy of New York fans and the autonomy of their 
      fan clubs
    > so, almost as quickly as it began, the organization passed from
      -- Boardman assured New York fans that he had no intent of "starting
         or intensifying any fan feud, or `taking over' New York fandom."

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