Chapter Four: "Fans Across the Water"
International Fandom

* Canada
  - decade of 1960s saw a resurgence in Canadian fandom that would lead to its
    hosting of a second worldcon, in the early 1970s
  - only isolated areas of fandom in the 1940s and 1950s
    > Leslie A. Croutch (of Parry Sound, Ontario)
      -- a well-known Canadian fan in the 1940s and 1950s
         >> was Canada's first Big Name Fan, and a member of FAPA
         >> (brief bio here)
            --- John Robert Colombo's book YEARS OF LIGHT, published (when?),
                was mainly about Croutch
    > John Millard and Ned McKeown became Canada's best known fans in the late
      -- McKeown chaired Canada's first worldcon, the Torcon of 1948
    > between 1948 and 1953, the sercon-oriented Canadian Science Fiction
      Association existed
      -- a pan-Canadian organization, whose members took interest in written
         science fiction, but almost no interest in fanzines and conventions
         >> about ten branches of this organization existed by the end of the
            1940s, including member clubs in Toronto, Montreal, Hamilton,
            Ottawa, Halifax, and London
         >> by the early 1950s, the organization became mostly lifeless
            --- a Windsor branch club abandoned the organization, merging
                instead with the remnants of the Michigan SF Society to form
                the Detroit SF League
            --- the Winnipeg SF Society was formed in 1950 under the auspices
                of Chester Cuthbert, apparently in an attempt to revive the
                CSFA, but with little success, and both organizations soon
      -- the CSFA's biggest claim to recognition was the 52-page booklet it
         published that described a system for classifying fantasy fiction by
    > Derelicts (a.k.a. Toronto Derelicts)
      -- active in the 1950s
         >> an outgrowth of the old Toronto Science Fiction Society, which had
            been in existance at end of 1940s as part of the CSFA, and which
            included notable fans Ned McKeown and Beak Taylor as members
      -- new group included McKeown, Boyd Raeburn, P. Howard Lyons, Pat
         Patterson, and Gerald Stewart (whose last name may have also been
         spelled as `Steward' by fans)
         >> group was mostly a clique of like-minded fans who behaved in
            light-hearted, non-serious manner
         >> members interests included jazz and sports cars
      -- by 1960s, they had all dropped out of fandom
         >> Lyons became involved with the International Brotherhood of
            Magicians and published a magazine devoted to stage music
            --- he had also married Patterson
         >> McKeown started a professional career as an educator
            --- went on to become President of the Metro Toronto Board of
         >> (what became of Raeburn and Stewart?)
    > Norman Browne was active in early part of 1950s
      -- attended some worldcons
      -- published fanzines
      -- was part of Ellison's "Seventh Fandom"
      -- (any idea what became of him?)
  - Georgina Ellis (of Calgary)
    > fanzine editor and fan artist in late 1950s and early 1960s
    > (brief bio here)
    > married Norm Clarke in 1965
      -- before her marriage, she was known in fandom as "Dutch" Ellis (why?)
    > in 1970s, became known as the "Duchess of Canadian Fandom" after being
      referred to as that in a fanzine (which one?)
  - Norm Clarke
    > (brief bio here)
    > jazz and rock music musician
    > after marrying Gina Ellis, they moved to Aylmer, Quebec, eventually
      settled down in Ottawa
    > both remained active in FAPA into the 1970s
      -- co-published the fanzine DESCANT into the early 1970s
  - release of the movie 2001 stirred interest in SF in Canada in the late
    > transitory clubs formed in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Ottawa
    > permanent ones in Toronto and Vancouver
  - Ontario Science Fiction Club (OSFiC)
    > formed in 1966 by Toronto fans Peter Gill, Mike Glicksohn, John
      Mansfield, Ken Smookler, and Maureen Bournes; Smookler was the club's
      first president
      -- club formed after they met each other at 1966 Worldcon
         >> Mansfield had decided to go to the worldcon after reading a series
            of articles on fandom, written by Lin Carter, that had appeared in
      -- Mike Glicksohn
         >> (brief bio of Glicksohn here)
         >> Glicksohn had discovered ad for 1966 Worldcon in FAMOUS MONSTERS
            OF FILMLAND magazine
         >> he was dubbed the "Boy Wonder of Canadian Fandom" by Dave Burton,
            an Indianapolis fan (need confirmation on this!) (why?)
         >> his fanzine ENERGUMEN, which began publication in 1970(?), won
            the Hugo Award at 1973 Worldcon
            --- ENERGUMEN became notable as much for its appearance as its
                content; it was mimeoed on heavy bond paper, and had such an
                impeccable appearance that it inspired other fan editors to
                emulate it
            --- Glicksohn therefore became the first of a new breed of fanzine
                publishers, who thought the appearance of a fanzine meant as
                much as its content
      -- meetings initially held at Memory Lane, "Capt'n George" Henderson's
         nostalgia store for second-hand memorabilia and books
         >> actual meetings held in The Whizzbang Gallery, a basement that
            Henderson rented next door as a show room for comics art
      -- meetings subsequently held at a variety of sites
      -- in a year, meetings had grown from 4 to 40 members
         >> eventually topped out at about 80 members (when?)
      -- prominent members at first included Henderson, John Mansfield, Ken
      -- Derek Carter, Susan Wood, and Alicia Austin joined later in the
         >> Carter an artist, came over from England
         >> Susan Wood
            --- had been introduced to fandom by Richard Labonte', when they
                were students at Carleton Univ. in Ottawa (when?)
            --- (mini-bio here)
            --- met Mike Glicksohn at Boskone VI in 1969; they were married
                in 1970
            --- went on to win Hugo Awards in 1970s for fan writing and as
                co-editor of ENERGUMEN
         >> Alicia Austin
            --- a college student from Texas, in Toronto in late 1960s
            --- left Canada for Los Angeles in 1970
            --- went on to win Fan Artist Hugo in 1971
    > chapters of club popped up in several cities in Ontario (more than just
      Ottawa? need confirmation)
      -- Ottawa chapter
         >> formed (when?)
         >> prominent members included (who?)
         >> folded in 1969
    > sponsored OSFIC MAGAZINE (a.k.a. OSFIC NEWSLETTER ??)
      -- title and editors changed almost every issue
         >> OSFiC MAGAZINE began in 1968
            --- title almost immediately changed to OSFiC QUARTERLY, then to
                OSFiC SUPPLEMENT
            --- edited by Peter Gill, described (in 1971) as "almost annual"
         >> succeeded by OSFiComm, edited by Gar Stevens
            --- about 40 different issues were published, some under the title
                of OSFiNotes
            --- lasted about three years, fading from view about 1973
      -- contributors included Roger Zelazny (what did he write?)
  - other Ontario fans and fan activities
    > Comics-oriented group formed by students at York University in Toronto
      -- formed in 1969 (??)
      -- members included Vaughn Fraser, Ron Sutton, Dean Motter, and Ron
         >> Sutton and Kasman became known as fan artists
         >> Sutton later became a professional graphic artist in Ottawa
            --- later co-wrote and drew a comic strip which ran in the Ottawa
                CITIZEN for a time
      -- group lasted for (how long?)  (reason for disbanding?)
    > Les Nirenberg's fanzine QUE PASADO (later VAHANA) became a newsstand
      humor magazine titled PANIC BUTTON
      -- early 1960s, ended in 1964
      -- later in 1964, Nirenberg transformed his magazine into "The Panic
         Button Review" comedy nightclub act in Toronto, and received good
         reviews from the TORONTO TELEGRAM
  - Atlantic Science Fiction Society (of New Brunswick)
    > "John Mansfield is the guiding light of this group" according to INSTANT
    > formed (when?) (1969?)
      -- in 1970, changed its name to the Base Gagetown Science Fiction
         >> Mansfield had been stationed at Base Gagetown, just outside
            Oromocto, New Brunswick; that military base was one of the main
            military training bases in eastern Canada
    > most significant activity was joint meeting with NESFA in the summer of
      1970, which attracted about 30 fans
    > the club died in the early 1970s after Mansfield was posted in a
      different part of Canada
  - Vancouver fandom
    > in the 1950s, a short-lived Vancouver SF Society was started by Norman
      Browne, who edited the club's fanzine, VANATIONS
      -- Browne's interest was soon directed southward to U.S. fandom, and he
         became hooked up with Harlan Ellison's Seventh Fandom movement before
         eventually dropping from sight by the mid 1950s
    > not much else happened in terms of organized fan activities in British
      Columbia through the remainder of the 1950s and most of the 1960s, until
      a university organization came into being late in the 1960s
      -- that organization, known as SFFEN started at University of British
         Columbia camous in the Autumn of 1968, at first being known as 
         UBC SFFEN
      -- founders were Claire Toynbee and Maynard Hogg
         >> they had placed an ad in student newspaper announcing the club's
            formation and invited any interested people to join
         >> it turned out that there were a number of fans already on campus
            who had been unaware of each other
      -- among people who showed up at first meeting were Mike Bailey, Daniel
         Say, and Brent Maclean
         >> Bailey would go on, in the next decade, to found a monthly
            newszine for the club that succeeded SFFEN
         >> Say would later be the driving force for the first in a long 
            series of regional conventions
            --- was described as "unquestionably, the most energetic, the most
                vocal, and the most enthusiastic" member of the club
      -- initial officers of club were Hogg as President, Toynbee as Vice
         President, and Bailey as Information Officer
      -- other prominent members included Norma & Ed Beauregard, who had met
         at a club gathering
      -- club didn't gather momentum until it obtained an office at Student
         Union Building, where collection of books and tapes was kept
         >> at first, met only infrequently
            --- lacked an office on campus
            --- occasionally was able to reserve a meeting room for parties
            --- most parties were held at members homes
      -- at 1969 Clubs Day, recruited about 40-50 new members, largely through
         the efforts of Daniel Say
         >> added influx of new members allowed club to acquire a permanent
            office in university's Student Union building
            --- served as a more permanent meeting place
            --- housed lending library of SF books and magazines
      -- received yearly money allocation from University's Alma Mater Society
         >> club had to use all its money each year, or have remainder
            absorbed back into Alma Mater Society funds
         >> to raise additional money for fanzine, showed a film ONE MILLION
            YEARS B.C., which netted $140 profit for club
         >> to protect club's funding, a dummy front organization was formed
            in 1970, British Columbia Science Fiction Society
            --- outside incomes protected with off-campus bank account
            --- fans paid dues to new Society instead of University club
            --- later in 1970, new Society became independent of Univ. club.
                became stable club for B.C. fans for many decades afterwards
  - Saskatchewan Sasquatch Seekers Society
    > Leland Sapiro
      -- (brief bio goes here)
      -- published RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY while teaching at Univ. of Regina
         >> mid 1960s (64 or 65) through early 1970s (1974)
         >> previously had been a member of Los Angeles fandom, while an
            instructor at the University of Southern California
            --- it was there that he had started RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY, which
                was really a continuation of the 1950s fanzine INSIDE
            --- there were actually two different "first" issues of RQ, a
                result of a mix-up between Sapiro and his then co-editor Jon
                >>> a breakdown in communications caused Sapiro to go ahead
                    and publish an issue, after tiring on waiting for White
                    ---- featured illustrations by Charles Schneeman
                >>> the very next day, White, on the other side of the snafu,
                    published his own version of their "first" issue
                    ---- his issue featured illos by ATom
                >>> there was some material duplicated between the two
                    versions, but much was not
      -- anyway, while in Canada, Sapiro also published SASKATCHEWAN
         SASQUATCHIAN, the club's official organ

* Germany
  - Science Fiction Club Deutschland (SFCD)
    > club sponsored the fanzine ANDROMEDA
  - Follow (fantasy-oriented fan club)
  - Frankfurt SF Group
    > (activities? other info?)
    > correspondent to the English-speaking world was Hans-Werner Heinrichs
  - source of German fan news to the outside world was STREIFLICHTER, an
    English-language German newszine edited by Alfred Beha
  - (in 1969, won bid for 1970 Worldcon)

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