Chapter Six: "Where No Fan Has Gone Before
This chapter chronicles the rise of Star Trek, notable TV productions and movies, media fandoms, and then segues into other subfandoms



* The Rise of STAR TREK
  - first previewed at 1966 Westercon and then 1966 Worldcon
    > Gene Roddenberry (say something about him)
  - Fan embracement of the series
  - SF author involvement in scripts
  - Hugo awards with 5 different Trek episodes nominated
  - first Trek fans appear
    > nine people dress as Spock in 1967 Worldcon Masquerade
    > Mike Glicksohn and contingent of Canadian fans wore Spock ears at 1967
      Worldcon, as they watched banquet from an overlooking balcony
  - the first all-STAR TREK fanzines
    > SPOCKANALIA edited by Devra Langsam and Sherna Comerford
      -- named after STAR TREK'S Vulcan Science Officer, Mr. Spock
      -- unlike many Trekzines that followed in the 1970s and later, was done
         by mimeo
      -- Devra Langsam co-editor
         >> joined fandom early in 1967, as member of Lunarians
         >> (mini-bio here)
         >> went on to become one of organizers of first major Star Trek con,
            featuring actors in the series, in New York City, in 1972
            --- con was not chaired by her (Al Schuster was chair)
         >> in 1970s, published another (mostly) Trekzine, MASIFORM D
            --- featured lots of multi-color mimeo
         >> continued to be active in Lunarians, holding most of positions in
            Lunacon committee at one time or another
         >> in later years, was huckster at many east coast conventions
      -- Sherna Comerford co-editor
         >> had met Devra in high school (which one?)
         >> (mini bio here)
         >> married fan Brian Burley in 1968
            --- second issue of SPOCKANALIA contained editorial that
                supported Columbus 1969 Worldcon bid that Burley was
                associated with
      -- first issue in 1967, was collated and distributed at the New York
         worldcon
      -- issue #2 contained articles by Ruth Berman, John Mansfield,
         Lois McMaster, Sandra Miesel, Susan Hereford, and Jean Lorrah;
         artwork by Alexis Gilliland, Juanita Coulson, and Jack Gaughan
      -- 5 issues during the 1960s
         >> typically pagecount was over 100
         >> content included fiction, poetry, and whimsy (e.g., what Vulcan
            culture was like, etc.)
         >> Devra's cousin Debbie Langsam became "Junior Editor" as of third
            issue
            --- Debbie also active in Lunarians
    > T NEGATIVE edited by Ruth Berman
      -- (details?)
  - fan conventions will be discussed in later chapters, but this seems a good
    place to describe the first STAR TREK convention ever held
    > the very first convention, called simply `The Star Trek Conference' took
      place on the afternoon of March 1, 1969, at Newark Public Library
      -- organizer was Sherna Comerford Burley
      -- unlike the high-profile media-oriented conventions that would begin
         to be held just a few years later, this one was low key, with nobody
         associated with the TV show there
         >> featured events were discussion panels, talks, and fannishness
            --- a fan panel on "The Star Trek Phenomenon", with Brian Burley,
                Debbie Langsam, and Sue Lewis tried to explain why the show
                was able to inspire such a massive show of support in the way
                of letter writing campaigns, fanzines, and even a one-day
                convention in Newark, where other shows had not
            --- Elyse Pines and Lee Smoire gave a slide show of the Enterprise
                Hollywood set and some of the aliens that had appeared in the
                show
            --- Chuck Rein, Ron Bounds, and Nara Sangster led a round of filk
                singing, of songs inspired by STAR TREK
            --- Hal Clement gave a talk about "Star Trek and Science"
            --- the convention ended with a short skit by Sherna called "Spock
                Shock"
      -- (attendance?)
      -- (fan reactions to the event, afterwards?)
    > it was not until 1971 that the media-oriented STAR TREK conventions
      began to be held, with actors from the show as guests
  - other notable TREKfans were Stu Hellinger, Al Schuster, Thom & Dana
    Anderson, Ben Yalow, Elyse Pines, Steve Rosenstein, Lois McMaster, Vonda
    McIntyre, Ruth Berman
    > Ruth Berman published a STAR TREK fanzine titled T NEGATIVE in late
      1960s
    > (need some details on how others were `notable')
  - the "Save STAR TREK" campaigns
    > show was in continual ratings problems, and in 1967 NBC cancelled the
      show for what would be the first of three times
    > in early 1967, a group of SF authors calling themselves "The Committee"
      sent out form letters to fans and other pro authors urging they write
      letters of praise for the series to their TV stations, media, and show's
      sponsors
      -- headed by Harlan Ellison; others on "The Committee" included Poul
         Anderson, Bradbury, Van Vogt, Phil Farmer, Richard Matheson, Ted
         Sturgeon, Bloch, del Rey, and Frank Herbert
    > the next year, NBC attempted to cancel the show again, and once again
      fandom came to its rescue
      -- in January 1968, fifteen members of NESFA picketed WBZ, the local NBC
         affiliate in Boston, to show support for the show and protest WBZ's
         occasional pre-emption of the show
    > Bjo published a newsletter WHERE NO FAN HAS GONE BEFORE, bring word to
      fandom on how the campaign was doing
      -- in the second issue, dated March 1, 1968, she reported that over one
         million letters had been sent to NBC by fans of the show
      -- a little more than one month later, both she and her husband John
         became employees of STAR TREK, in charge of handling fan mail and
         related duties
  - there was another crossover from STAR TREK to science fiction: the
    novelizations of various STAR TREK episodes that were written by James
    Blish and published by (who?)
    > these started appearing (when?)
    > Blish also wrote an original STAR TREK novel, SPOCK MUST DIE, that was
      the first in a long series of STAR TREK novels written by sf authors,
      that continued for decades afterwards
    > Bjo even got in on the STAR TREK publication stampede in 1969, with THE
      STAR TREK CONCORDANCE, which contained plot synopses, listings of actors
      and actresses who had appeared in the show, script writers, and
      explanations for nearly every subject mentioned in the show
      -- Bjo had received permission from Gene Roddenberry for the project
      -- although technically it was a fanzine, it was offset-reproduced for
         crisp appearance, and had over 100 illustrations by such prominent
         fan artists as Alicia Austin, George Barr, and Tim Kirk

* THE MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E.
  - a popular TV spy show from the late 1960s that was vaguely science
    fictional at times, featuring secret agents Napoleon Solo and Ilya
    Kuryakin of the United Network Command for Law and Enforcement
    > (any reprint quotes from 1960s fanzines on why fans found it popular?)
  - like STAR TREK, its own fan clubs sprung up in response to the show
    > United Network Command for Law and Enforcement fan club was the largest
       -- (who formed it? when?)
          >> (anyone in club who were also in fandom?)
       -- (how long did it last?)
  - fandom's main connection with the series, however, were the novelizations
    done by Ace Books in the mid-to-late 1960s
    > Terry Carr was an editor at Ace at that time, and he was able to use his
      influence to bring the opportunities to fans who were in the process of
      becoming pro writers
      -- the writer most often associated with the series of U.N.C.L.E.
         novels published in the 1960s was Los Angeles fan Ted Johnstone
      -- After seeing an sf novel by Johnstone that Wollheim had rejected,
         Carr was convinced that that Johnstone could be a talented writer: 
         "I commissioned him to write those MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E. novels because
         I admired his narrative skills combined with his playfulness; they
         were *extremely* good for what they were."
  - Johnstone's U.N.C.L.E. novelizations appeared under his real name, David
    McDaniel
    > his first book, THE D.A.G.G.E.R. AFFAIR, sold to Ace Books in late 1965
    > sold five other MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E. novelizations in the 1960s
      -- after second novel, he apparently had made the unpleasant discovery
         that he was not to become rich from writing U.N.C.L.E. novels
         >> in his third novel, THE MONSTER WHEEL AFFAIR, in 1967, readers
            found that the first letter in each chapter title spelled out the
            message `A.A. Wyn is a tightwad', which went unnoticed by the
            publisher of Ace Books, Mr. Wyn
         >> that book was also dedicated to "Ted Johnstone, for 10 years of
            unremitting labor which put me where I am today"
    > a final novel, THE FINAL AFFAIR, was never published, as it leapt
      beyond the constraints of the series by killing off one of the major
      characters
      -- it saw publication in fanzine form in the 1970s, after the TV series
         had ended
  - other novelizations done by science fiction fans were by Buck Coulson and
    Gene DeWeese under the pseudonym of "Thomas Stratton", and by Ron Ellik
    under the pseudonym of "Fredric Davies"

* THE OUTER LIMITS
  - Ellison scripts, including "Soldier" and "Demon with a Glass Hand"
    > campaigned for Dramatic Presentation Hugo
      -- showings, and eligibility, were promoted in STARSPINKLE
    > Ron Ellik (who did not own a TV set) reported that his viewing of
      "Soldier" at Harlan's house, was an experience, because of last-minute
      TV reception troubles: "With two TV repairmen standing up on the hill
      holding the antenna in place, and Harlan jumping up and down, tearing
      his hair, we watched SOLDIER."
      -- reported that "the performances were great, the plot was poor, and
         the writing was far better than I've become accustomed to find on
         television; as for special effects -- every time they pulled one,
         Harlan had to tell us what happened, because the set would go blooie.
         The tension -- from a high-pitched show and a higher-pitched host --
         was terrific, and at the end I felt I had spent a valuable hour even
         though I'm not yet a tv-watcher."
    > Ellison also did screenplays for other TV series, including BURKE's LAW

* DOCTOR WHO
  - debuted day after Kennedy was shot (1963)
  - (any fan reactions?)
  - large and active network of Dr. Who fanclubs sprung up in later decades

* other television shows (and recordings)
  - THE PRISONER
    > a television series about a secret agent identified only as "Number 6"
      who was imprisoned in a fantasy village (filmed in Portmeirion, Wales)
      after he had attempted to resign
      -- broadcast on British TV in 1967, and came to the U.S. the next year
    > in later years, spawned its own fandom that was marginally connected
      with science fiction
    > its main connction to fandom, once again, was the novelizations done by
      sf authors and fans
      -- writers of the first three Prisoner novels were Thomas Disch, David
         McDaniel, and Hank Stine (published when?)
    > there *were* some other fannish associations with the series, though;
      New York fans Rich and Colleen Brown had unknowingly scheduled their
      wedding at the exact day and time that the final episode was aired in
      New York City, so the Fanoclast fan group, which they were members of,
      had a major decision of which event to watch
      -- most of them opted for the wedding, and had to wait until the show
         was eventually repeated to see how it all came out
      -- Brown later commented, "I have always regarded that as a Test of
         Friendship."
  - there were other sf fan- and pro-written novelizations of TV shows in the
    1960s
    > Ted White and Dave Van Arnam wrote one for the abysmally bad LOST IN
      SPACE
    > Ted also wrote a CAPTAIN AMERICA novel, though it was based on a popular
      comic book rather than on a TV series
  - FIRESIGN THEATER
    > comedy recordings caught the attention of fandom in late 1960s,
      including Jim Young and Fred Haskell from Minneapolis
      -- Haskell did interview with some of members, that was printed in RUNE
         in 1970
    > apart from crossover interest of fans, however, no real fandom developed

* 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY
  - Arthur C. Clarke
    > movie based on his short story "The Sentenel"
    > Announced project at banquet at 1965 Worldcon
      -- original name of movie was to be "Journey Beyond the Stars"
      -- said he hoped it would be the Destination Moon of the 1970s
  - Dave Kyle's visit to the set
  - Con Pederson, former member of 1950s L.A. fan group, The Outlanders, was
    in charge of animation and special effects department for the movie
  - fan reaction to the movie
  - the "meaning" of the movie was a subject of debate
    > when Canadian fan Ken Smookler asked Clarke what the last sequence of
      the movie was supposed to mean, Clarke was reported to have said, "I
      don't know; Stanley won't tell me."
  - Hugo award in 1969

* FAHRENHEIT 451 movie
  - based on the Bradbury novel
  - filmed in 1966
  - (fan reactions?)

* FAMOUS MONSTERS OF FILMLAND magazine
  - edited by Forrest J Ackerman
    > (bio of FJA's 1960 activities)
    > Special dinner given for him on Dec. 2, 1967, in honor of his 50th
      birthday and 40 years in fandom
      -- Bloch was toastmaster, other speakers included Bradbury, Jim Warren,
         Guy Gifford (an old-time pulp magazine cartoonist), A.E. van Vogt,
         and Walt Leibscher
      -- Forry was presented with various plaques and awards, and copy of a
         special fanzine put out by LASFS (edited by Fred Patten) for the
         occasion
  - magazine succeeded in bringing people into fandom
    > Mike Glicksohn learned about 1966 worldcon from ad in magazine
    > young fan named Gene Klein
      -- only in fandom briefly
         >> described (by Gary Farber) as "A typical 12-13 year old monster
            fan"
      -- published a few fanzines
      -- went on to international fame in rock music, under stage name of
         Gene Simmons with the group KISS

* Horror Film Club of Great Britain
  - formed early in 1965
  - Organized Britain's first media-SF convention, in Sept. 1966 in Bath
    > SF notables attending included Ramsey Campbell (who conducted an
      auction), Ted Tubb, Ken Bulmer, and Ray Fawcett
    > programme apparently consisted mostly of films; about 18 were shown
  - club expired soon after that, the convention apparently finishing them off
  - notable member was Rosemary Nicholls, who married Darroll Pardoe in 1969

* Films involving fans
  - IT HAPPENED HERE, a "what if" movie about Britain under Nazi control
    > filmed periodically between 1956 and 1964
    > had bit roles as extras for Jim Linwood, Bruce Burn, Pete Taylor
    > film finally finished in 1964 after receiving some financial assistance
      from Stanley Kubrick and Tony Richardson
  - The Delta Group in U.K. (Manchester)
    > made series of amateur films
      -- shown at 1964 Eastercon
      -- collaborated with Liverpool Group in production of CASTLE OF TERROR
         (a.k.a. FRANKENSTEIN AND THE REVOLTING PEASANTS)
         >> Liverpool fandom had previously (in the 1950s) been progenitor of
            Mersey and Deeside Productions, which had also done some fan
            productions
      -- BREATHWORLD received the Highly Commended Award in AMATEUR MOVIE
         MAGAZINE's `Top Eight Competition' in 1966
      -- FRANKENSTEIN'S EXPERIMENT received a Diploma of Merit at the Scottish
         Amateur Film Festival of 1966
    > also sponsored 1968 Eastercon
    > lasted until mid-1970s

* Jim Harmon
  - fan from 1950s best known for scuffle with Harlan Ellison at 1954 worldcon
    that resulted in the infamous "Midwestcon Door" incident
  - was announcer and producer of biweekly radio show on station KPFK in Los
    Angeles called "Radio Rides Again"
    > featured bits of old-time radio favorites
  - his book, THE GREAT RADIO HEROES, was published by Ace Books in 1968

* Rog Ebert
  - midwest U.S. fan, attended University of Illinois as an English major
    > first appearance in fandom in the late 1950s, when several of his
      letters appeared in prozine letters columns
  - was pretty much an average, undistinguished fan
    > published a short-lived fanzine STYMIE
    > appeared at a few midwest conventions, including the 1962 Worldcon
    > by 1961, his science fiction collection included about 1000 prozines and
      400 fanzines
    > wrote fanzine articles, the most notable being "The Fanac of J. Alfred
      Trufan" which appeared in KIPPLE
      -- other fanzines where he appeared included YANDRO; PSI-PHI, where he 
         did a regular column titled "Reverberations", and PARSECTION, where 
         he reviewed fanzines
    > he also wrote fannish poetry, which appeared in XERO
      -- topics included his admiration of Walt Willis and a visit to Ted
         White's house
  - he did not stay in fandom very long
    > last fanzine appearance was (when?)
    > in 1960, he had won an Illinois Associated Press newswriting award, for
      a sports story
      -- this was the beginnings of a career in journalism
         >> later, in 1963, he became editor of the Univ. of Illinois campus
            newspaper, THE DAILY ILLINI
  - he went on to become world-famous movie critic Roger Ebert
    > this was perhaps predictable; one of his first pieces of fanac, a letter
      in the August 1957 issue AMAZING, commented on the book review column
      and said that "I just simply get a kick out of finding someone else's
      opinion on a book I read."


Other Subfandoms

* Knights of St. Fantony
  - started at 1957 British Convention (in Kettering), by Bob Richardson, Eric
    & Margaret Jones, Peter Mabey, and Audrey Eversfield
    > all were members of the Cheltenham Circle fan club
  - original purpose was as return of honours bestowed on Cheltenham fans by
    the Liverpool Group
    > quickly expanded to honor activities of other worthy fans
      -- at a KofStF Ceremonie, identity of those being honoured was kept
         secret until they were yanked from audience
      -- newly chosen honorees induction included the downing of the Waters of
         St. Fantony, which was described as "a liquid with an improbably high
         proof rating"
  - became dormant in 1963 after death of founder, Bob Richardson
    > was felt that, as mark of respect for Richardson, StF should bow out
  - revived in late 1964 by Keith Freeman, Eric Jones, and Ken Slater
    > happened at an all-night party at a convention about a year after
      Richardson's death
    > felt that reviving the Society would be a living tribute to Richardson
  - held events at Eastercons, plus 1965 and 1966 worldcons

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